Dr. Earle Spaulding classified the medical instrument (devices) into three categories based on the device usage and body contact into three classes, critical, semi-critical and non-critical according to the infection risk involved by using it so Dr. Sapulding classify the way of treating such devices either by disinfection or sterilization
Critical items confer a high risk for infection if they are contaminated with any microorganism as they are entering sterile tissue or the vascular system so they must be sterile because any microbial contamination could be a source to transmit diseases. That class includes medical devices e.g. Implants, invasive catheters , Implants and any device that touch sterile body cavities.Utmost of the articles in this class should be purchased as sterile or be sterilized before usage.
Semicritical things contact mucous membranes or non intact skin. This class includes metabolic process medical care and physiological state instrumentality, some endoscopes, medical instrument blades, passageway manometry probes, cystoscopes, body part. Those medicinal devices ought to be free from all microorganisms; but, little numbers of microorganism spores square measure permissible. Intact mucous membranes, like those of the lungs and therefore the channel, typically square measure immune to infection by common microorganism spores, however, vulnerable to different organisms, like microorganism, mycobacteria, and viruses. Semicritical things minimally need high-level medical care victimization chemical disinfectants.
Noncritical things which contact with intact skin, however, not secretion membranes. Intact skin acts as an honest barrier to most microorganisms; therefore, the sterility of things returning in touch with intact skin is “not essential.” noncritical things unit divided into noncritical patient care things and noncritical environmental surfaces. samples of noncritical patient-care things unit bedpans, physical phenomenon cuffs. In distinction to essential and a number of semicritical things, most noncritical reusable things also are decontaminated where they are used and do not need to be compelled to be transported to a central method house Noncritcal environmental surfaces embrace bed rails, some food utensils, facet tables, patient piece of furnishings and floors. Noncritical environmental surfaces oftentimes touched by hand (e.g., facet tables, bed rails) likely would possibly contribute to secondary transmission by contaminating hands of health-care staff or by contacting medical instrumentality that once contacts patients.
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