Major and Specific types of HAI

Major and Specific types of HAI

Surveillance of HAI is a very crucial process need to be done for monitoring the infection spread inside any health care facility and for comparing the results inside the facility itself for TRENDING or

Major and Specific types of HAI

Major and Specific types of HAI

comparing the result with other facility (same facility scope) BENCHMARK the surveillance methodology has to be unified (active/ passive surveillance) and the definition of the type of HAI that will be monitored and the criteria to define such infection types has to be unified

 

The CDC (Center for disease control and prevention)/NHSN (National Health safety network) periodically publish a surveillance definition of health care associated infection plus the criteria needed for that for each major and specific type of infection till January 2013 the NHSN specify 13 types of Major infections each one has its own specific infection type then this year Jan 2013 they added new type of infection called Ventilator Associated Event to reach 14 types of infection

 

The fourteen Major infection types will be discussed one by one in more details but let’s review those types:

Urinary tract infection

This major type of infection has three specific types of infections (Asymptomatic bacteremic urinary tract infection, Symptomatic UTI, other urinary tract infection)

 

Bone and joint infection

This covers all infections related to Bone and Joints and this major type has three sub-types (Osteomyelitis, Disc space infection, Joint or Bursa infections)

 

Bloodstream infection

This major type has two specific types’: Laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection and mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection

 

Central nervous system

This major type is covering all infections related to CNS with three specific infection types (Intracranial infection, Meningitis or ventriculitis, Spinal abscess without meningitis)

 

Cardiovascular system infection

This major type of infection has four specific infection types (Myocarditis or pericarditis, Endocarditis, Mediastinitis, Arterial or venous infection)

 

Reproductive tract infection

This Major type of infection has four specific types of infection (Endometritis, vaginal cuff infection, other infection of the male or female reproductive tract)

 

Skin and soft tissue infection

This Major type of infection has eight specific types of infections (Breast abscess or mastitis, Burn infection, Newborn circumcision infection, Decubitus ulcer infection, Infant pustulosis, Skin infection, Soft tissue infection, Omphalitis)

 

Surgical site infection

This major infection type has five specific types of infections (Deep incisional primary surgical site infection, deep incisional secondary surgical site infection, Organ/space, superficial incisional primary surgical site infection, superficial incisional secondary surgical site infection)

 

Gastrointestinal system infection

Has five specific types of infections (Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal (GI) tract infection, Hepatitis, Intra-abdominal infection, not specified elsewhere, Necrotizing enterocolitis)

 

Eye, ear, nose, throat, or mouth infection

This major type of infection is covering the infections related to eye, ear, nose, and throat with six specific infection types (Conjunctivitis, Ear & mastoid infection, Eye infection, other than conjunctivitis, Oral cavity infection (mouth, tongue, or gums), Sinusitis, URTI, pharyngitis, epiglottitis, laryngitis)

 

Lower respiratory infection, other than pneumonia

This major type of infection has two specific types of infections (tracheobronchitis, Bronchitis, tracheitis, without of pneumonia and other infection of the lower respiratory tract)

 

Pneumonia

This major type of infections has three specific types of infections (Clinically-defined pneumonia, Pneumonia with specific laboratory findings, Pneumonia in immunocompromised patient)

Systemic infection

Only disseminated infection is a specific type of infection for this major type

Ventilator-associated event

This Major type has four specific infections types (Ventilator-associated condition, Infection-related ventilator-associated complication, possible ventilator-associated pneumonia, Probable ventilator-associated pneumonia)

 

All those types of infection need to be followed and monitored to implement a well-structured surveillance program in acute care facility (based on the scope of service for the health care facility)

 

 Reference

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