Infections associated with the biofilm
As per our discussion of Biofilm: problem and Prevention we discussed the problem now we need to know the infections associated with the biofilm e.g. otitis media , native valve endocarditis , periodontal diseases , cystic fibrosis and prostatitis all are associated diseases with biofilm as historically described long time
Rhinosinusitis infections have been added to the list of biofilm diseases .Further, the four reservoirs of Homo sapiens have been modified to link the sinus and mouth area as one of the reservoirs.
Native Valve/Vascular Implant Endocarditis
Endocarditis is associated with congenital heart defects, prosthetic heart valves, and vascular grafts, and is most likely caused by clots of platelet and fibrin that amass where turbulent flow is aggravated by abnormal tissue, preexisting heart disease, or an indwelling vascular catheter, mainly caused by streptococci (half of cases) and Staphylococci as one fourth of cases
Periodontal Diseases/Subgingival Plaque
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola are the most common association with biofilm unfortunately the oral biofilm is not only associated with tooth loss but now a days it is linked between low birth weight, premature rupture of membrane and women poor oral hygiene
It is understood now a days that a clear association between biofilm and otitis media as one of the common diseases
Cystic Fibrosis/Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia
It is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the primary site of morbidity is the respiratory system. Pulmonary colonization of the lower respiratory tract of CF patients begins in infancy or early childhood, most commonly by S. aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. However, by adolescence and early adulthood, mainly all cystic fibrosis patients become colonized with P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa grows in biofilms within the CF lung. Microscopic analysis of sputum from patients indicating that the P. aeruginosa forms biofilm-like structures consisting of clusters of bacteria surrounded by a dense matrix.
P. aeruginosa has several adhesins and binds to a broad range of receptors and cell types in the RT. Anaerobic multiplication may be an important aspect of P. aeruginosa growth in biofilms in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa formed vigorous biofilms under anaerobic conditions, leading to the build-up of toxic nitrogen metabolites.
The progression to wound healing may become compromised by the biofilm presence . The microorganisms, during interfering with the healing process of wound , may not present any clinical symptoms and signs of infection, even there may be clear signs that indicate bacterial presence (e.g., change in wound color or odor together with the presence of revitalized tissue and ischemia).
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