Ebola: what should Clinicians Know?
Ebola: what should Clinicians Know?
Ebola Virus that causing Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak continues spreading in the west Africa causing more than 1000+ infected person with more than 56% mortality rate and causing fear around the globe due to the easiness of transportation and the commercial trade that can lead to more spread of the virus so let’s stat Ebola: what should clinicians know
The March outbreak of Ebola HF is a somehow new as spreading outside Africa leading to more cases outside Africa _in past it was mainly confined to African countries and self-limited, _ but this time it is spreading more rapidly and can be considered as the highest number of confirmed.
Ebola virus was first isolated in 1976 into five subtypes belong to Filoviridae family one of them infect primates only that is Reston and Zaire subtype which is the most aggressive,
The incubation period is 2-21 days symptoms mainly started 8-9 days from infection minimal number of patient start to develop sever symptoms 1-2 days after infection that include.
Flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms: headache, sore throat, intense weakness, sudden fever; and profuse vomiting and diarrhea. More severe symptoms, can be development of coagulopathy with thrombocytopenia, can develop within 1-2 days, causing bleeding from the nasal or oral cavities, plus hemorrhagic skin blisters. If renal failure developed it would lead to multisystem organ failure with disseminated intravascular coagulation, rapidly result within 3-5 days, with significant volume loss. People who survive beyond two weeks have a better prognosis for survival.
Good to know
It is a highly contagious virus while patient is symptomatic, but not spread via airborne route or spread by droplets. Acquiring Ebola virus if another person coughs or sneezes close to you is not recorded, and it is not spread by casual contact. Ebola Virus acquired by direct contact with infected secretions: higher virus concentration in vomit, diarrhea, and blood. Low viral concentration in sweat, saliva, and tears. Also, transmission can be via contact of secretions with a skin opening or healing wound, and by contact secretions and touches nose, eyes, or mouth, HCWs caring for patients and family members with close contact of infected patients. Persons who handle corpses at the time of burial, Persons who eat antelope, fruit bats or other animals which can be potentially infected with a virus.
Infection Prevention Measures
Standard precautions plus quarantine and isolate Suspected/confirmed patients are a top priority in all health care facilities to people coming from infected areas, wear PPE _Personal Protective Equipment_, including eyewear or goggles, gloves, facemask, and a gown is a must to be observed for health care workers and patient visitors, limiting the visitors to minimize the possibility of acquiring infection
Effective decontamination for environment and medical equipment is a must, and it is better to use disposable medical equipment if not available dedicated items is recommended, for reusable surgical instrument proper cleaning and sterilization is a must
Call for Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Specialist to help controlling the Ebola Outbreak
No curative treatment, currently supportive care is the only treatment plan by intravenous fluids; blood and platelet transfusions donated from recovered patient from Ebola HF due to antibodies is one of trails
No vaccination against Ebola virus till now
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